Concluding Eucharist-Pope Benedict XVI World Youth Day

Dear young friends,

Yesterday evening we came together in the presence of the Sacred Host, in which Jesus becomes for us the bread that sustains and feeds us (cf. Jn 6:35), and there we began our inner journey of adoration.  In the Eucharist, adoration must become union.  At the celebration of the Eucharist, we find ourselves in the “hour” of Jesus, to use the language of John’s Gospel.  Through the Eucharist this “hour” of Jesus becomes our own hour, his presence in our midst.  Together with the disciples he celebrated the Passover of Israel, the memorial of God’s liberating action that led Israel from slavery to freedom.  Jesus follows the rites of Israel.  He recites over the bread the prayer of praise and blessing.  But then something new happens.  He thanks God not only for the great works of the past;  he thanks him for his own exaltation, soon to be accomplished through the Cross and Resurrection, and he speaks to the disciples in words that sum up the whole of the Law and the Prophets:  “This is my Body, given in sacrifice for you.  This cup is the New Covenant in my Blood”. He then distributes the bread and the cup, and instructs them to repeat his words and actions of that moment over and over again in his memory.

What is happening?  How can Jesus distribute his Body and his Blood?  By making the bread into his Body and the wine into his Blood, he anticipates his death, he accepts it in his heart and he transforms it into an action of love.  What on the outside is simply brutal violence, from within becomes an act of total self-giving love.  This is thesubstantial transformation which was accomplished at the Last Supper and was destined to set in motion a series of transformations leading ultimately to the transformation of the world when God will be all in all (cf. 1 Cor 15:28).  In their hearts, people always and everywhere have somehow expected a change, a transformation of the world.  Here now is the central act of transformation that alone can truly renew the world:  violence is transformed into love, and death into life.  Since this act transmutes death into love, death as such is already conquered from within, the resurrection is already present in it.  Death is, so to speak, mortally wounded, so that it can no longer have the last word.  To use an image well known to us today, this is like inducing nuclear fission in the very heart of being – the victory of love over hatred, the victory of love over death.  Only this intimate explosion of good conquering evil can then trigger off the series of transformations that little by little will change the world.  All other changes remain superficial and cannot save.  For this reason we speak of redemption:  what had to happen at the most intimate level has indeed happened, and we can enter into its dynamic.  Jesus can distribute his Body, because he truly gives himself.

This first fundamental transformation of violence into love, of death into life, brings other changes in its wake.  Bread and wine become his Body and Blood.  But it must not stop there, on the contrary, the process of transformation must now gather momentum.  The Body and Blood of Christ are given to us so that we ourselves will be transformed in our turn.  We are to become the Body of Christ, his own flesh and blood.  We all eat the one bread, and this means that we ourselves become one.  In this way, adoration, as we said earlier, becomes union.  God no longer simply stands before us, as the one who is totally Other.  He is within us, and we are in him.  His dynamic enters into us and then seeks to spread outwards to others until it fills the world, so that his love can truly become the dominant measure of the world.  I like to illustrate this new step urged upon us by the Last Supper by drawing out the different nuances of the word “adoration” in Greek and in Latin.  The Greek word is proskynesis.  It refers to the gesture of submission, the recognition of God as our true measure, supplying the norm that we choose to follow.  It means that freedom is not simply about enjoying life in total autonomy, but rather about living by the measure of truth and goodness, so that we ourselves can become true and good.  This gesture is necessary even if initially our yearning for freedom makes us inclined to resist it.  We can only fully accept it when we take the second step that the Last Supper proposes to us.  The Latin word for adoration is ad-oratio – mouth to mouth contact, a kiss, an embrace, and hence ultimately love.  Submission becomes union, because he to whom we submit is Love.  In this way submission acquires a meaning, because it does not impose anything on us from the outside, but liberates us deep within.

Let us return once more to the Last Supper.  The new element to emerge here was the deeper meaning given to Israel’s ancient prayer of blessing, which from that point on became the word of transformation, enabling us to participate in the “hour” of Christ.  Jesus did not instruct us to repeat the Passover meal, which in any event, given that it is an anniversary, is not repeatable at will.  He instructed us to enter into his “hour”.  We enter into it through the sacred power of the words of consecration – a transformation brought about through the prayer of praise which places us in continuity with Israel and the whole of salvation history, and at the same time ushers in the new, to which the older prayer at its deepest level was pointing.  The new prayer – which the Church calls the “Eucharistic Prayer” – brings the Eucharist into being.  It is the word of power which transforms the gifts of the earth in an entirely new way into God’s gift of himself and it draws us into this process of transformation.  That is why we call this action “Eucharist”, which is a translation of the Hebrew word beracha – thanksgiving, praise, blessing, and a transformation worked by the Lord:  the presence of his “hour”.  Jesus’s hour is the hour in which love triumphs.  In other words:  it is God who has triumphed, because he is Love.  Jesus’s hour seeks to become our own hour and will indeed become so if we allow ourselves, through the celebration of the Eucharist, to be drawn into that process of transformation that the Lord intends to bring about.  The Eucharist must become the center of our lives.  If the Church tells us that the Eucharist is an essential part of Sunday, this is no mere positivism or thirst for power.  On Easter morning, first the women and then the disciples had the grace of seeing the Lord.  From that moment on, they knew that the first day of the week, Sunday, would be his day, the day of Christ the Lord.  The day when creation began became the day when creation was renewed.  Creation and redemption belong together.  That is why Sunday is so important.  It is good that today, in many cultures, Sunday is a free day, and is often combined with Saturday so as to constitute a “week-end” of free time.  Yet this free time is empty if God is not present.  Dear friends!  Sometimes, our initial impression is that having to include time for Mass on a Sunday is rather inconvenient.  But if you make the effort, you will realize that this is what gives a proper focus to your free time.  Do not be deterred from taking part in Sunday Mass, and help others to discover it too.  This is because the Eucharist releases the joy that we need so much, and we must learn to grasp it ever more deeply, we must learn to love it.  Let us pledge ourselves to do this – it is worth the effort!  Let us discover the intimate riches of the Church’s liturgy and its true greatness:  it is not we who are celebrating for ourselves, but it is the living God himself who is preparing a banquet for us.  Through your love for the Eucharist you will also rediscover the sacrament of Reconciliation, in which the merciful goodness of God always allows us to make a fresh start in our lives.

Anyone who has discovered Christ must lead others to him.  A great joy cannot be kept to oneself.  It has to be passed on.  In vast areas of the world today there is a strange forgetfulness of God.  It seems as if everything would be just the same even without him.  But at the same time there is a feeling of frustration, a sense of dissatisfaction with everyone and everything.  People tend to exclaim:  “This cannot be what life is about!”  Indeed not.  And so, together with forgetfulness of God there is a kind of new explosion of religion.  I have no wish to discredit all the manifestations of this phenomenon.  There may be sincere joy in the discovery.  Yet if it is pushed too far, religion becomes almost a consumer product.  People choose what they like, and some are even able to make a profit from it.  But religion constructed on a “do-it-yourself” basis cannot ultimately help us.  It may be comfortable, but at times of crisis we are left to ourselves.  Help people to discover the true star which points out the way to us:  Jesus Christ!  Let us seek to know him better and better, so as to be able to guide others to him with conviction.  This is why love for Sacred Scripture is so important, and in consequence, it is important to know the faith of the Church which opens up for us the meaning of Scripture.  It is the Holy Spirit who guides the Church as her faith grows, causing her to enter ever more deeply into the truth (cf. Jn 16:13).  Pope John Paul II gave us a wonderful work in which the faith of centuries is explained synthetically:  the Catechism of the Catholic Church.  I myself recently presented the Compendium of the Catechism, prepared at the request of the late Holy Father.  These are two fundamental texts which I recommend to all of you.

Obviously books alone are not enough.  Form communities based on faith!  In recent decades movements and communities have come to birth in which the power of the Gospel is keenly felt.  Seek communion in faith, like fellow travellers who continue together to follow the path of the great pilgrimage that the Magi from the East first pointed out to us.  The spontaneity of new communities is important, but it is also important to preserve communion with the Pope and with the Bishops.  It is they who guarantee that we are not seeking private paths, but are living as God’s great family, founded by the Lord through the twelve Apostles.

Once again, I must return to the Eucharist.  “Because there is one bread, we, though many, are one body” says Saint Paul (1 Cor 10:17).  By this he meant:  since we receive the same Lord and he gathers us together and draws us into himself, we ourselves are one.  This must be evident in our lives.  It must be seen in our capacity to forgive.  It must be seen in our sensitivity to the needs of others.  It must be seen in our willingness to share.  It must be seen in our commitment to our neighbours, both those close at hand and those physically far away, whom we nevertheless consider to be close.  Today there are many forms of voluntary assistance, models of mutual service, of which our society has urgent need.  We must not, for example, abandon the elderly to their solitude, we must not pass by when we meet people who are suffering.  If we think and live according to our communion with Christ, then our eyes will be opened.  Then we will no longer be content to scrape a living just for ourselves, but we will see where and how we are needed.  Living and acting thus, we will soon realize that it is much better to be useful and at the disposal of others than to be concerned only with the comforts that are offered to us.  I know that you as young people have great aspirations, that you want to pledge yourselves to build a better world.  Let others see this, let the world see it, since this is exactly the witness that the world expects from the disciples of Jesus Christ; in this way, and through your love above all, the world will be able to discover the star that we follow as believers.

Let us go forward with Christ and let us live our lives as true worshippers of God!  Amen.


In His concluding Homily to World Youth Day in Cologne on August 21, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI speaks of the transformation of bread in wine into the Body and Blood of Christ as being intended to initiatiate a whole series of transformations, much like nuclear fission!

Pope Benedict XVI

Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI, was born in Bavaria, Germany, on April 16, 1927, Holy Saturday, and baptized the very same day, in the newly blessed Easter water. This special baptism was seen from the beginning of his life as a very special blessing of Divine Providence. Josef and his brother George entered the seminary and were ordained priests together on June 29, 1951. After receiving his doctorate in theology from the University of Munich in 1953, Fr. Joseph Ratzinger became a professor of dogmatic theology at the University of Bonn. When Vatican Council II began in 1962, Fr. Ratzinger, only 35 years old at the time, was named chief “peritus” or theological advisor to the Archbishop of Cologne, Joseph Cardinal Frings and accompanied him to all four sessions of the council, having input on the writing of several of the Council Documents. From 1969 until 1977 he taught theology at the University of Regensburg and, from 1969 until 1980, he was a member of the Vatican’s International Theological Commission. Fr. Joseph Ratzinger was ordained archbishop of Munich-Freising on May 28, 1977 and was created a cardinal priest by Pope Paul VI on June 27, 1977, his titular church in Rome being St. Mary of Consolation (in Tiburtina). On April 5, 1993 Cardinal Ratzinger was transferred by Pope John Paul II to the order of cardinal bishops as titular bishop of the suburbicarian see of Velletri-Signi. In 1981 Cardinal Ratzinger became the Prefect (head) of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the Vatican department in charge of protecting the sacred deposit of the faith handed on from the apostles. As such, he was Pope John Paul II’s chief assistant in the formulation of the Pope’s teaching and writing. There is perhaps no one who worked more closely with Pope John Paul II during the course of his pontificate. Cardinal Ratzinger would generally have lengthy private meetings with the Pope twice per week. Before his election as Pope Benedict XVI, Cardinal Ratzinger also served president of the Pontifical Biblical and Theological Commissions. On November 6, 1998, Cardinal Ratzinger was appointed Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Prior to the death of Pope John Paul II, he served as a member of the Congregation of Bishops, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, the Congregation for Catholic Education, the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, the Council for Christian Unity, the Council for Culture, the Commission Ecclesia Dei, and the Commission for Latin America. As prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Cardinal Ratzinger had a decisive role in the writing of the “Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification,” signed in October 1999 by the Holy See and the World Lutheran Federation in Augsburg, Germany. The declaration, one of the most important ecumenical steps since Martin Luther’s split with the Catholic Church in the 16th century, took place thanks to the dialogue held in November 1998 between Cardinal Ratzinger and Lutheran Bishop Johannes Hanselman in Munich. As he approached his mid-seventies, Cardinal Ratzinger attempted to retire several times, but Pope John Paul II would not accept his resignation. It seems Pope John Paul II knew God had other plans for the German Cardinal. At 78, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected as Pope Benedict XVI on April 19, 2005, only the second day of the conclave. This speedy election demonstrates a remarkable consensus on the part of the 115 Cardinals who elected him by a two-thirds majority. Their vote was for a defender of the truth, a man of prayer, a humble servant of the servants of God. Besides his academic articles and official Church documents, the new Pope Benedict XVI provides us with a window into his mind and heart through several books, the Ratzinger Report (1996), The Spirit of the Liturgy (2000), God and the World (2002) and Introduction to Christianity. For those who have had the privilege of knowing him personally, what is most striking about him is his simplicity, humility, and childlike wonder at things. His self-effacing manner is combined, however, with a firm but gentle courage in defending the faith in all its fullness and integrity. In his resolute opposition to error, he is however, never personally defensive since he has no ego to protect. It is worth noting that on his coat of arms, Benedict replaced the traditional papal tiara with a bishop’s miter with three stripes representing the Church’s three-fold mission to teach, sanctify, and govern. At his inaugural Mass, he took the time to explain the importance of the pallium which symbolizes the shepherd’s mission and the yoke of Christ.