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Authority of Vatican II same as Trent – Ratzinger

“It must be stated that Vatican II is upheld by the same authority as Vatican I and the Council of Trent, namely, the Pope and the College of Bishops in communion with him, and that also with regard to its contents, Vatican II is in...

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New Commandment of Love – Augustine

Augustine on the divine love, known as charity, caritas, agape, that Jesus commanded us to have for one another in the last supper discourse of the Gospel of John. This sort of love is impossible for human beings without the help of grace -- it...

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Tradition of the Apostles -Tertullian

Tertullian, one of the most important Christian writers of the late second and early third century, here explains why the church's apostolic foundation is so important.  The tradition of the apostles is our link to Christ and our guarantee of continuity and fidelity.  This excerpt...

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Easter – A New Beginning

One of the great themes of Easter has always been New Creation - the death of our old selves which we leave buried in the tomb and a new beginning powered by the resurrection of Jesus Christ. It is undeniable that the darkness of...

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Meaning of Lent & the Samaritan Woman

The original meaning of Lent in the early Church and how Jesus' dialogue with the Samaritan woman at the well can help us add another dimension to our understanding and experience of the Lenten Season. In the early days of the Church, Lent was...

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Peter, the Keys, and the Chair – Leo the Great

Leo the Great on the famous passage from Matthew 16 in which Jesus gives Cephas the new name of Peter, meaning rock, along with the keys to the kingdom of heaven. It is read each year on the Feast of the Chair of...

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The Apostles Creed & The Nicene Creed

Catholic Christians are generally familiar with two creeds - the Nicene Creed which we typically recite at Sunday Mass and the Apostle's Creed which is the first prayer of the rosary. Where do these creeds come from, why are they different, and what is...

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Nicene Creed – Cyril of Jerusalem

This excerpt from a catechetical instruction by St. Cyril of Jerusalem dates from the mid 4th Century, just a generation after the Council of Nicaea. At that time, the bishop of Jerusalem himself instructed the catechumens before baptism (today's RCIA), and this is a record...

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Catholic and Apostolic Faith – Irenaeus

Here Irenaeus underlines the Catholicity of the Church with many cultures professing a single truth, a common tradition of catholic and apostolic faith going back to the apostles and their disciples. Though this was written about 185 AD, one can recognize here the outline of...