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The Calming of the Storm and the Socratic Method

One of the most famous bible stories of all time is Jesus calming the storm on the Sea of Galilee.  Mark, the evangelist, uses the story to ask the reader a question that elicits a clear answer on the identity of Christ.  This approach is...

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What makes a particular Church Council Ecumenical? How many have fit this definition down through history, and what is their importance and authority? The Catholic and Orthodox Churches have related but somewhat different answers to these questions....

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Tome of Leo-St. Leo the Great

The letter of Pope Leo to Flavian, bishop of Constantinople, about Eutyches Commonly known as the "Tome of Leo" In the first half of the 5th century, the great doctrinal controversies in the Christian world all revolved around the divinity and humanity of Christ and how these...

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Divine Motherhood of Mary – Cyril of Alexandria

On June 27, the Catholic Church honors the Memory of St. Cyril of Alexandria, best known for his role at the Council of Ephesus in AD 431 defending the traditional title of the Virgin Mary as Theotokos, translated "God-bearer" or Mother of God....

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Jesus, Eternal Word, Image of the Father – Athanasius

A strong affirmation, by Athanasius, of the full Divinity of Christ in an age when that doctrine was under attack. The heresy of Arianism, which taught that Jesus was inferior to the Father, originated in Alexandria, Egypt, the native place of St. Athanasius....